2進数リテラル in 標準C

プログラミング言語Cの次期仕様C2xでは 2進数リテラル(binary literal) が正式仕様となる。そこ今更とか言わない。

// C2x
unsigned x = 0b101010;
unsigned y = 0B11110000;

ノート:2003年時点の (PDF) Rationale for International Standard Programming Languages Cでは下記の通り否定的だったが、C++14で 2進数リテラルが導入されたことも影響していそう。 Integer constants
A proposal to add binary constants was rejected due to lack of precedent and insufficient utility.


std::is_convertible vs. std::convertible_to



  • is_convertible<From, To>メタ関数:From型からTo型へ暗黙変換できることを検査する。
  • convertible_to<From, To>コンセプト:From型からTo型へ暗黙変換および明示変換できることを検査する。


#include <concepts>
#include <type_traits>

struct From;
struct To {
  To() = default;
  // From→Toの明示変換を禁止
  explicit To(From) = delete;
struct From {
  // From→Toの暗黙変換は許可
  operator To() { return {}; }

static_assert( std::is_convertible_v<From, To> );
static_assert( !std::convertible_to<From, To> );

To to1 = From{};  // OK: 暗黙変換
To to2{From{}};   // NG: 明示変換

C++20(N4861) 18.4.4/p1, 20.15.6/p5より引用(下線部は強調)。

Given types From and To and an expression E such that decltype((E)) is add_rvalue_reference_t<From>, convertible_to<From, To> requires E to be both implicitly and explicitly convertible to type To. The implicit and explicit conversions are required to produce equal results.

template<class From, class To>
  concept convertible_to =
    is_convertible_v<From, To> &&
    requires(add_rvalue_reference_t<From> (&f)()) {

The predicate condition for a template specialization is_convertible<From, To> shall be satisfied if and only if the return expression in the following code would be well-formed, including any implicit conversions to the return type of the function:

To test() {
  return declval<From>();

[Note: This requirement gives well-defined results for reference types, void types, array types, and function types. -- end note] Access checking is performed in a context unrelated to To and From. Only the validity of the immediate context of the expression of the return statement (8.7.3) (including initialization of the returned object or reference) is considered. [Note: The initialization can result in side effects such as the instantiation of class template specializations and function template specializations, the generation of implicitly-defined functions, and so on. Such side effects are not in the "immediate context" and can result in the program being ill-formed. -- end note]



C++20 requires式の単純な利用では非static/staticメンバを区別できない。requires式の本体部は評価されない(unevaluated)ため、通常コードとは異なる規則が適用されることに注意。

// staticメンバmを持つ型X
struct X {
  static const int m = 1;

// (非static)メンバmを持つ型Y
struct Y {
  int m = 2;

// staticメンバT::mを確認するコンセプト(?)
template <typename T>
concept HasStaticM = requires {
    { T::m } -> std::convertible_to<int>;

// 式 T::m はmがstaticメンバのときのみ有効
assert( X::m == 1 );  // OK
static_assert( HasStaticM<X> );  // OK

// mが非staticメンバの場合は式 T::m と書けないが...
assert( Y::m == 2 );  // NG: ill-formed
static_assert( HasStaticM<Y> );  // OK !?


  • X::mはstaticデータメンバのため、式&X::mは通常のポインタ型(int*)となる。
  • Y::mは非staticデータメンバのため、式&Y::mはデータメンバへのポインタ型(int X::*)となる。
template <typename T>
concept HasStaticM = requires {
    { T::m } -> std::convertible_to<int>;
    requires !std::is_member_object_pointer_v<decltype(&T::m)>;

static_assert(  HasStaticM<X> );  // OK
static_assert( !HasStaticM<Y> );  // OK

C++20(N4861) 7.5.4/p2, 7.5.7/p2より引用(下線部は強調)。


2 An id-expression that denotes a non-static data member or non-static member function of a class can only be used:

  • as part of a class member access ( in which the object expression refers to the member's class or a class derived from that class, or
  • to form a pointer to member (, or
  • if that id-expression denotes a non-static data member and it appears in an unevaluated operand. [Example:
struct S {
  int m;
int i = sizeof(S::m); // OK
int j = sizeof(S::m + 42); // OK

-- end example]

2 A requires-expression is a prvalue of type bool whose value is described below. Expressions appearing within a requirement-body are unevaluated operands (7.2).


"Poison-pill" overload for CPO

C++20標準ライブラリで導入された Customization Point Object (CPO)定義で必要となる Poison-pill*1 オーバーロードについてメモ。std::ranges::swapstd::ranges::begin/endなどのCPO定義で利用される。


std::ranges名前空間でのCPO定義位置からは、親名前空間stdで定義されるカスタマイズポイント同名の制約のない関数テンプレート(std::swapstd::begin/end)が "見えて” しまうため、同関数テンプレートシグネチャをdelete宣言してオーバーロード候補から除外する(★印)。

// std::ranges::swap CPO実装イメージ(超簡略化版)
namespace std::ranges {
  namespace swap_impl {
    template<class T> void swap(T&, T&) = delete;  // ★

    struct swap_fn {
      template<class T1, class T2>
        requires /* C++20 18.4.9/p2/b1 */
      constexpr void operator()(T1& e1, T2& e2) const {
        // 非修飾名・ADL経由でカスタマイズポイント(swap)を呼び出す
        swap(e1, e2);
      // ...

  // std::ranges::swap CPO定義
  inline namespace swap_cpo {
    inline constexpr swap_impl::swap_fn swap{};
    // Hidden friendとの名前衝突回避のためインライン名前空間が必要
    // 詳細説明は提案文書 P1895R0 を参照のこと

C++20 Rangesライブラリの前身、Ranges TS検討当時の提案文書 P0370R3 Ranges TS Design Updates Omnibus より一部引用。

unqualified name lookup for the name swap could find the unconstrained swap in namespace std either directly - it’s only a couple of hops up the namespace hierarchy - or via ADL if std is an associated namespace of T or U. If std::swap is unconstrained, the concept is "satisfied" for all types, and effectively useless. The Ranges TS deals with this problem by requiring changes to std::swap, a practice which has historically been forbidden for TSs. Applying similar constraints to all of the customization points defined in the TS by modifying the definitions in namespace std is an unsatisfactory solution, if not an altogether untenable.

We propose a combination of the approach used in N4381 with a "poison pill" technique to correct the lookup problem. Namely, we specify that unqualified lookup intended to find user-defined overloads via ADL must be performed in a context that includes a deleted overload matching the signature of the implementation in namespace std. E.g., for the customization point begin, the unqualified lookup for begin(E) (for some arbitrary expression E) is performed in a context that includes the declaration void begin(const auto&) = delete;. This "poison pill" has two distinct effects on overload resolution. First, the poison pill hides the declaration in namespace std from normal unqualified lookup, simply by having the same name. Second, for actual argument expressions for which the overload in namespace std is viable and found by ADL, the poison pill will also be viable causing overload resolution to fail due to ambiguity. The net effect is to preclude the overload in namespace std from being chosen by overload resolution, or indeed any overload found by ADL that is not more specialized or more constrained than the poison pill.


[Note: Many of the customization point objects in the library evaluate function call expressions with an unqualified name which results in a call to a program-defined function found by argument dependent name lookup (6.5.2). To preclude such an expression resulting in a call to unconstrained functions with the same name in namespace std, customization point objects specify that lookup for these expressions is performed in a context that includes deleted overloads matching the signatures of overloads defined in namespace std. When the deleted overloads are viable, program-defined overloads need be more specialized ( or more constrained (13.5.4) to be used by a customization point object. -- end note]



N要素からなるサブシーケンス検索を行うC++標準アルゴリズムstd::search_nでは、“0個の任意要素からなるサブシーケンス” は常に先頭位置にマッチする。

#include <algorithm>

int arr[5] = {0, 10, 10, 20, 30};

// 2個の要素10からなるサブシーケンス
auto itr1 = std::search_n(arr, arr + 5, 2, 10);
assert(itr1 == arr + 1);  // index=1

// 2個の要素20からなるサブシーケンス
auto itr2 = std::search_n(arr, arr + 5, 2, 20);
assert(itr2 == arr + 5);  // NOT FOUND

// 0個の要素42からなるサブシーケンス
auto itr3 = std::search_n(arr, arr + 5, 0, 42);
assert(itr3 == arr + 0);  // index=0

C++03 25.1.9/p4-6より引用。

template<class ForwardIterator, class Size, class T>
    search_n(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, Size count,
           const T& value);

template<class ForwardIterator, class Size, class T,
         class BinaryPredicate>
    search_n(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, Size count,
          const T& value, BinaryPredicate pred);

4 Requires: Type T is EqualityComparable (20.1.1), type Size is convertible to integral type (4.7, 12.3).
5 Effects: Finds a subsequence of equal values in a sequence.
6 Returns: The first iterator i in the range [first, last - count) such that for any non-negative integer n less than count the following corresponding conditions hold: *(i + n) == value, pred(*(i + n),value) != false. Returns last if no such iterator is found.





#include <concepts>

// #1 プライマリテンプレート(?)
template<typename T>
  requires (!std::floating_point<T>)
int f(T) { return 0; }

// #2 double型による特殊化
int f(double) { return 1; }  // NG

assert( f(42) == 0 );
assert( f(3.14) == 1 );


// #1 制約付きテンプレート
template<typename T>
  requires (!std::floating_point<T>)
int f(T) { return 0; }

// #2 double型でオーバーロード
int f(double) { return 1; }  // OK
// #1 プライマリテンプレート
template<typename T>
int f(T) { return 0; }

// #2 double型による特殊化
int f(double) { return 1; }  // OK

C++20 13.9.3/p12より引用。

[Note: An explicit specialization of a constrained template is required to satisfy that template's associated constraints (13.5.2). The satisfaction of constraints is determined when forming the template name of an explicit specialization in which all template arguments are specified (13.3), or, for explicit specializations of function templates, during template argument deduction ( when one or more trailing template arguments are left unspecified. -- end note]


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